Alcohol's Impact: How It Affects Your Brain and Body

Explore the profound effects of alcohol on your body and dive into the latest research that unravels alcohol’s impact on the brain.

How Does Alcohol Affect You?

Alcohol’s impact on your brain and body can affect you in many ways. It can even shape social interactions and cultural norms. Knowing how alcohol may affect you is imperative in making sure that you or a loved one get the care and support you deserve.

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The Impact of Alcohol on Your Body

In this article, we’ll be taking a close look at alcohol’s impact on the central nervous system (CNS). We’ll examine alcohol’s impact on specific areas of the CNS and take a look at factors contributing to potential impairment.

We’ll also examine the role of alcohol on your body. Specifically, how alcohol affects the liver in processing alcohol and the link between this and the CNS effects observed.

Alcohol’s Effects

Alcohol can potentially affect you in dangerous ways, especially with long-term use. Ensure that you reach out to a trusted healthcare provider if you experience any adverse side effects.

Alcohol’s Impact on the Liver and Processing

The liver plays a critical role in processing and detoxifying substances, including alcohol. When alcohol enters the body, it gets absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and small intestine. From here, the alcohol travels to the liver, which bears the brunt of alcohol detoxification.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes. The primary enzyme responsible for alcohol metabolism is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ADH converts alcohol (ethanol) into a toxic compound called acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde is a potent toxin and carcinogen, but it doesn’t stay in the body for long.1

Another enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), converts acetaldehyde into acetate, a less toxic substance in the body. This eventually breaks down into water and carbon dioxide for elimination.

How Does the Liver Process Alcohol?

The liver can only metabolize a certain amount of alcohol per hour, roughly equivalent to one standard drink. If the amount of alcohol consumed exceeds the liver’s ability to metabolize it, the excess alcohol circulates in the bloodstream until the liver can process it.

During this time, the circulating alcohol can affect various systems of the body. This includes the central nervous system. This can result in alcohol’s impact being felt as impairment and intoxication.

How Does the Liver Affect the CNS?

The liver’s role in processing alcohol has a significant impact on the CNS. When alcohol consumption outpaces the liver’s processing capability, the alcohol concentration in the blood increases. This is also known as the blood alcohol concentration (BAC). As BAC rises, so does alcohol’s impact on the CNS.

This leads to signs of intoxication, such as:

  • Impaired motor control
  • Poor judgment
  • Slowed reaction time
  • Potential blackouts

How Can Long-Term Alcohol Use Impact You?

Long-term, heavy alcohol consumption can lead to liver diseases such as fibrosis and cirrhosis. These conditions impair the liver’s ability to function effectively. This can, in turn, result in higher BAC levels for longer periods.

This prolonged exposure to alcohol can amplify alcohol’s impact on the CNS, thus leading to more severe neurological and cognitive impairments.

Furthermore, acetaldehyde can also affect the CNS when it builds up in the body. Acetaldehyde can contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive deficits.

Alcohol’s Impact: How Does Alcohol Affect The Central Nervous System?

Alcohol’s impact on the CNS is a multifaceted phenomenon. It involves a series of complex chemical interactions within the brain.

The CNS comprises the brain and spinal cord, and it is the primary hub that governs everything we do. These range from basic functions like breathing and heartbeat to complex tasks like decision-making.

Some specific areas of the CNS susceptible to alcohol’s impact include the following:

Cellular-Level Effects

Alcohol’s impact begins at the cellular level. Ethanol, the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages, is a small molecule. It can cross the blood-brain barrier easily. Once it reaches the brain, it primarily interacts with two types of neurotransmitters in the CNS.

These are GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, which means it slows down or stops the brain’s activities. Conversely, glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter responsible for speeding up the brain’s activities.

Alcohol’s impact manifests as it enhances the effects of GABA, leading to feelings of relaxation and sedation. Simultaneously, it inhibits the effects of glutamate, causing a general slowing down of brain activity.

The Cerebellum

The cerebellum is the region at the back of the brain responsible for movement and coordination.2 Alcohol’s impact on the cerebellum leads to a loss of balance, staggering, and an overall unsteady gait.

This is why most law enforcement agencies use balance or coordination tests to check for alcohol impairment.

The Limbic System

Another region significantly affected by alcohol’s impact is the limbic system. The limbic system governs emotions and memory. When alcohol affects this area, people may experience exaggerated emotions. They may also experience memory loss or even blackouts.

This impact is often seen when people under the influence behave erratically or cannot remember actions they carried out while intoxicated.

The Frontal Lobes

Alcohol’s impact doesn’t stop at the cerebellum. The frontal lobes, responsible for decision-making and impulse control, are also targeted. This impact can lead to poor decision-making.

It can also lead to decreased inhibitions and risky behavior. All of these are often associated with incidents of drunk driving and other harmful actions.

The Medulla

Alcohol’s impact also extends to the medulla. The medulla controls our automatic functions such as heart rate and temperature control.3

High levels of alcohol can slow or even shut down these functions, leading to unconsciousness, coma, or, in extreme cases, death.

Also, note that chronic and heavy drinking can lead to long-lasting damage to the brain and CNS. Alcohol’s impact in such cases can lead to cognitive deficits and various neurological disorders.

Alcohol’s Impact: Short-Term Effects Of Alcohol on the Central Nervous System

Alcohol’s impact on the central nervous system is immediately apparent in the short-term effects it produces. These effects can be witnessed soon after alcohol consumption. They can significantly contribute to behavioral and physical impairment.

Some of these include the following:

Alcohol's Impact on Coordination

As mentioned, one of the most noticeable short-term effects of alcohol is its impact on motor skills and coordination. Alcohol impairs muscle coordination, balance, and movement.

The impairment of these functions can result in unsteady movement and poor balance. It can also result in difficulty performing tasks that require fine motor skills.

Alcohol's Impact on Reaction Time

Alcohol slows down the processing speed of the brain and leads to decreased reaction times. This delay can make it dangerous for people under the influence of alcohol to perform certain tasks, such as driving.

Alcohol's Impact on Inhibitions and Decision-Making

Alcohol can cause lowered inhibitions and impaired judgment. Thus causing individuals to make decisions they may not make when sober. This can result in risky behaviors like unsafe sex or violent confrontations.

Alcohol's Impact on Mood and Emotions

Alcohol can have a significant impact on mood. It can cause people to experience feelings of elation or depression, which can be unpredictable and intense.

Alcohol's Impact on Memory

Even in the short-term, alcohol’s impact can lead to memory impairment. The hippocampus, a part of the brain crucial for forming new memories, is particularly sensitive to alcohol. People may experience blackouts, which is when they cannot remember periods while they were intoxicated.

Alcohol's Impact on Consciousness

In large quantities, alcohol’s impact can lead to loss of consciousness. This happens because alcohol depresses the reticular activating system. This is the part of the brain that controls consciousness and arousal.

Alcohol's Impact on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Alcohol also affects the ANS. This is a part of the CNS that controls vital life functions like heart rate, digestion, and body temperature. Alcohol can depress the functioning of the ANS, leading to slowed heart rate. This also leads to lower body temperature and even respiratory failure in severe cases.

Alcohol’s Impact: Long-Term Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Use on the CNS

Chronic alcohol use can have devastating long-term effects on the CNS. Alcohol’s impact becomes increasingly significant with prolonged misuse. Some of these consequences will be detailed below.

Alcohol's Effect on Brain Structure

Chronic alcohol use can lead to alterations in the size and structure of the brain. Long-term alcohol use can even result in a reduction in brain volume. This is particularly true for the cortex and cerebellum. These changes can lead to impairments in cognitive functions, motor skills, and coordination.

Neurological Disorders

Chronic alcohol use can give rise to several neurological disorders. One such condition is Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS). This is a brain disorder caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency common in individuals with chronic alcoholism. Symptoms include severe memory loss, confusion, and physical coordination issues.

Alcohol’s impact can also contribute to the development of other conditions like alcoholic neuropathy. This results in nerve damage and can cause pain, numbness, and motor weakness.

Cognitive and Behavioral Changes

Alcohol’s effect on the brain’s frontal lobes over time can lead to cognitive deficits. These may manifest as problems with attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. Behavioral changes can also occur.4

Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal

Over time, the CNS can become dependent on alcohol, leading to addiction. This can make it extremely difficult for people to stop drinking.

Sudden cessation can also lead to alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Symptoms can include:

  • Anxiety
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Delirium tremens
  • Hallucinations
  • Seizures

Alcohol's Impact on Sleep

Chronic alcohol use can disrupt the normal sleep cycle. It can lead to insomnia and other sleep disorders.

Neuroimmune Changes

Long-term alcohol consumption can activate the CNS’s immune system, leading to inflammation and neurodegeneration. This can contribute to cognitive decline and increase the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Strategies to Reduce Alcohol’s Impact on the Brain

The degree to which alcohol’s impact on the CNS can be reversed largely depends on several factors. These include:

  • The duration and severity of alcohol use
  • The individual’s overall health
  • Whether any irreversible damage has been done to the brain or liver

In some cases, abstinence and proper treatment can help improve some of the effects. Some strategies for alleviating alcohol’s effects on the brain include the following:


The most crucial step towards mitigating alcohol’s impact is to stop drinking. Abstinence allows the brain to begin to heal and recover from the effects of alcohol.

This recovery can take time, and while some effects may be permanent, many people will see improvements in brain function and cognition with sustained abstinence.


Good nutrition can support brain health and recovery. People with alcohol use disorder often have nutrient deficiencies. Supplementation can help address these deficiencies and support brain function.


Regular physical activity has been shown to promote brain health. It could potentially help mitigate some of alcohol’s effects on the CNS.

Exercise can improve mood, promote better sleep, and reduce anxiety and depression symptoms. All of these can be beneficial for individuals recovering from alcohol use disorder.

Mental Health Support

Addressing mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, or any underlying conditions that might contribute to alcohol use disorder is an essential part of the recovery process. Therapy can help individuals better manage their mental health and reduce their reliance on alcohol.


Certain medications can help people abstain from alcohol. This is because they reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms. These medications can be an essential part of a comprehensive treatment plan for alcohol use disorder.

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How Can Choice House Help?

Are you currently struggling with alcohol use disorder? If you are and you’re looking for help with treating alcohol’s impact on your brain and body, Choice House is the perfect place for you.

At Choice House, we offer premier 90-day residential treatment, intensive outpatient treatment services, and long-term structured sober living designed to support men on their road to lasting recovery.

How Can We Help?

We favor a proven, steady approach that never rushes the inpatient rehab process. Rooted in moral and spiritual principles, our programs help struggling men find meaning and purpose in life through honesty, integrity, and the willingness to work hard.

Some therapies we provide include:

  • Adventure therapy
  • Experiential therapy
  • Evidence-based therapies
  • Alcohol interventionist programs
  • Trauma therapy
  • Dual diagnosis therapy
  • Family therapy

Get In Touch With Us Today

Reach out today and find out how we can help you heal from alcohol’s impact on your mind and body.

Participants leave their usual environments and enter nature. In these settings, they must learn to work as part of a team and develop survival skills.1

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Don’t let addiction or co-occurring mental health conditions keep you from leading the happy, healthy, and empowered life you deserve. Contact Choice House today and embrace recovery.

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