The Physical Cost: How Alcohol Affects Different Parts of the Body

Have you asked, “Alcohol affects which part of the body?” Choice House offers comprehensive programs that offer education and tools for recovery.  

Alcohol Affects Which Part of The Body?: Effects of Alcohol

Alcohol can have a severe impact on various parts of the body. If you’re searching “alcohol affects which part of the body,” Choice House can help you understand the effects. This article explores the ways alcohol affects different parts of the body and how to find support.

alcohol affects which part of the body

Alcohol Affects Which Part of The Body?

When searching for “alcohol affects which part of the body,” you will find that alcohol affects different organs and functions. Chronic alcohol consumption can have significant effects on many major organ systems. These systems include:

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Long-term alcohol use can lead to changes in brain structure and function. This can cause problems with:1

  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Motor coordination
  • Emotional regulation
These changes can manifest as alcohol-induced dementia or Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Chronic alcohol use can also increase the risk of stroke and diseases like Alzheimer’s.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Chronic alcohol consumption can lead to peripheral neuropathy. This can manifest as numbness, tingling, and burning sensations in the extremities.2


The liver is the organ most affected by alcohol. Chronic use can lead to fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and even cirrhosis. These conditions can progress to liver failure and increase the risk of liver cancer.3

Digestive System

Alcohol increases the production of stomach acid. This can lead to gastritis and peptic ulcers. It also impairs nutrient absorption in the small intestine. Chronic consumption can increase the risk of pancreatitis and cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and colon.4

Cardiovascular System

Chronic alcohol use can lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy. This is a condition where the heart muscle weakens, reducing its ability to pump blood. This can result in heart failure.
It can also cause:5
  • Arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation
  • High blood pressure
  • And increased risk of heart attack and stroke

Respiratory System

While less direct, the damage alcohol does to the immune system can make the lungs more susceptible to infections. Alcohol can also interfere with the regulation of breathing during sleep. This can contribute to sleep apnea.

Immune System

Chronic alcohol use weakens the immune system. This makes the body more susceptible to infections and impairs its ability to recover from illnesses and injuries.

Endocrine System

Alcohol can disrupt the hormonal balance. This can affect the regulation of metabolism, stress responses, body temperature, and reproductive health.6
In men, chronic use can lead to low testosterone levels, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. In women, it can cause irregular periods, infertility, and an increased risk of miscarriage, premature delivery, and stillbirth.

Musculoskeletal System

Alcohol can interfere with bone health. Chronic alcohol use can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of fractures. It can also lead to muscle weakness and atrophy.

Alcohol Affects Which Part of the Body?: Cumulative Effects of Alcohol Use

When searching for “alcohol affects which part of the body,” it’s important to note that alcohol’s effects can be cumulative.
Some of the damage may not be reversible, even with cessation of alcohol use. The best approach is the prevention and moderation of alcohol consumption.

Who is Vulnerable to the Physical Effects of Alcohol?

Many factors can impact how alcohol affects the body. This can make certain populations more susceptible to the physical effects of alcohol. Some of these factors include:


Differences in genes related to alcohol metabolism can influence an individual’s susceptibility to the effects of alcohol. Some people may have a variant of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene that leads to the buildup of a toxic byproduct of alcohol metabolism.
This can cause:
  • Flushing
  • Nausea
  • Rapid heartbeat
This “alcohol flush reaction” can serve as a deterrent to heavy drinking. But people who drink heavily despite this reaction may be at higher risk for alcohol-related esophageal cancer.

Sex Assigned at Birth

Women are often more susceptible to the effects of alcohol than men. They have lower levels of the enzymes that metabolize alcohol. They also have a higher proportion of body fat to water.
This can result in higher blood alcohol concentration. Thus, women may develop alcohol-related health problems more quickly than men.


The ability to metabolize alcohol decreases with age. This makes older adults more susceptible to the effects of alcohol. Also, age-related changes and health problems can worsen the impact of alcohol on the body.

Mental Health Conditions

People with certain mental health conditions are often more vulnerable to alcohol’s effects. Those with disorders like depression or anxiety are also more likely to use alcohol as a coping mechanism. This can lead to chronic consumption and associated health issues.

Co-existing Health Conditions

People with existing health conditions are more vulnerable to the damaging effects of alcohol. This can include those with liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and gastrointestinal problems.

Socioeconomic Factors

Lower socioeconomic status is often associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and a greater risk of alcohol-related harm.
This may be due to factors such as:
  • Increased stress
  • Reduced access to healthcare
  • And a higher prevalence of alcohol use in certain communities
The relationship between alcohol and health is complex. Searching for “alcohol affects which part of the body” will provide you with various results. It’s important to remember the impact of alcohol will affect individuals differently.

Alcohol Affects Which Part of the Body?: Early Signs of Alcohol-Related Physical Issues

When searching for “alcohol affects which part of the body,” you should be aware of early signs of alcohol-related physical damage. These symptoms may show the need for further intervention and treatment. Symptoms can include:

Gastrointestinal Symptoms

Gastrointestinal symptoms can include abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and gastrointestinal bleeding.

Liver Disease

Symptoms of liver disease can include:
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  • Abdominal pain and swelling
  • Fatigue
  • And unexplained weight loss

Neurological Symptoms

This includes symptoms such as:
  • Problems with balance and coordination
  • Numbness or tingling in the extremities
  • And changes in cognition or memory

Cardiovascular Symptoms

Cardiovascular symptoms may include shortness of breath, chest pain, palpitations, and unexplained fatigue.

Psychological Changes

Psychological or behavioral changes such as increased irritability, depression or anxiety, and changes in sleep patterns can occur.

Physical Changes

Physical changes may also occur. These include:
  • Redness of the face
  • Broken capillaries on the nose and cheeks
  • A puffy face
  • And dull and dry skin

Changes in Blood Chemistry

Changes in routine blood tests can include:
  • Increases in liver enzymes (AST and ALT)
  • Changes in complete blood counts (especially low red cell, white cell, or platelet counts)
  • And increases in mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Unexplained bruising or bleeding as alcohol can also interfere with the body’s clotting mechanism.

Increased Risk of Infection

Repeated infections or illnesses due to alcohol’s inhibiting effect on the immune system.

Alcohol Affects Which Part of the Body?: The Importance of Knowing the Warning Signs

These signs are often subtle and can be easily missed or dismissed. It is crucial to be aware of the early signs of alcohol-related damage.
Early recognition and intervention can often prevent further harm. If recognized and corrected early enough, it may even reverse some alcohol-related health concerns.

Alcohol Affects Which Part of the Body?: Long-Term Effects of Alcohol on The Brain and Nervous System

One area of focus when searching for “alcohol affects which part of the body” is the brain and nervous system. Chronic alcohol use can have significant long-term effects on these systems.
Alcohol can affect both the structure and function of these systems. Some long-term effects of alcohol include:

Neurotoxic Effects of Alcohol

Alcohol and its metabolites are neurotoxic. Chronic exposure can lead to neuronal death and brain atrophy. This is especially true in the frontal lobes, which are responsible for higher cognitive functions.

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

Long-term alcohol use can lead to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This condition is characterized by confusion, impaired coordination, and involuntary eye movement.7

If left untreated, it can progress to Korsakoff’s psychosis. This condition involves severe memory impairment, disorganized thinking, and personality changes.

Cognitive Deficits

Chronic alcohol use can lead to deficits in learning, memory, problem-solving, and other cognitive functions. These impairments can range from mild to more severe dementia-like symptoms.

Mood Impairment

Long-term alcohol use can lead to mood disorders like depression and anxiety. It can also affect emotional regulation. This can lead to increased aggression and risk of suicide.

Changes in Coordination

Chronic alcohol consumption can cause damage to the cerebellum. The cerebellum is the part of the brain responsible for coordination and balance.

Physical Dependence

Long-term alcohol consumption can lead to physical dependence. This occurs when the brain adjusts to the constant presence of alcohol.
When alcohol use is reduced or stopped, withdrawal symptoms can occur, including:
  • Tremors
  • Agitation
  • Hallucinations
  • Seizures
  • Delirium tremens (marked by confusion and cardiovascular collapse)

Disruption of Regular Sleep Cycles

Alcohol can interfere with the normal sleep cycle. This can lead to insomnia and disrupted sleep. Chronic sleep disruptions can have significant impacts on mood and health.
The severity of these effects can vary among individuals. While the effect of alcohol on different parts of the body can be reversible, some conditions can be permanent.

Alcohol Affects Which Part of the Body?: Effects of Alcohol Use on The Heart

Another important organ you will find when searching “alcohol affects which part of the body” is the heart. Chronic alcohol use can have serious effects on cardiovascular health. Alcohol can increase the risk of heart-related conditions, such as:

Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy

Chronic heavy drinking can lead to the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. This is a disease of the heart muscle. The heart becomes enlarged, and the muscle walls become weak and thin.
This then hampers the heart’s ability to effectively pump blood. Over time, this can lead to heart failure.8

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Regular heavy drinking can lead to high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke.


Alcohol can cause irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia). Two types of arrhythmias are associated with chronic alcohol use:
  1. Atrial fibrillation: This is where the upper heart chambers contract quickly and irregularly

  2. Ventricular tachycardia: This is a rapid heart rhythm originating from the lower chambers of the heart.

Both conditions increase the risk of stroke, heart attack, and sudden cardiac death.


Chronic heavy drinking is a risk factor for both:
  • Ischemic stroke (caused by blood clots)
  • Hemorrhagic stroke (caused by bleeding in the brain)

Coronary Artery Disease

Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease. But heavy drinking does not provide this benefit and may increase risk.9
Chronic heavy drinking can raise cholesterol and triglyceride levels. This contributes to obesity and promotes the development of diabetes. These issues are risk factors for coronary artery disease.

Alcohol Affects Which Part of the Body?: Important Considerations for Alcohol-Related Cardiac Risk Factors

The relationship between alcohol and heart health is complex. Light to moderate drinking might have some cardiovascular benefits for certain people. But these benefits must be weighed against the potential risks. The severe risks can include physical dependence and addiction.

Alcohol Affects Which Part of the Body?: How Alcohol Affects the Liver

The liver is one of the most common organs you will come across when searching “alcohol affects which part of the body.” Chronic alcohol consumption can lead to a spectrum of liver diseases. These are known as alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
These conditions can manifest in physical effects such as:

Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (Steatosis)

This is the earliest stage of ALD. It occurs as alcohol metabolism leads to an accumulation of fat in the liver cells.10
It is often asymptomatic but can sometimes cause discomfort in the upper right abdomen. This is due to liver enlargement. Fatty liver disease is reversible with abstinence from alcohol. But continuous drinking can progress to more serious liver diseases.

Alcoholic Hepatitis

Alcoholic hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by continuous heavy drinking. Mild symptoms can include nausea, loss of appetite, and fatigue.11
Severe symptoms of this disorder can include:
  • Jaundice
  • Fluid accumulation in the abdomen
  • Coagulation abnormalities leading to bleeding
  • And hepatic encephalopathy, which is confusion or coma due to liver failure 
These conditions can occur in people who have been drinking heavily for a short time (weeks or months). They can occur in those who have been drinking for a longer time.

Alcoholic Cirrhosis

This is the most serious type of ALD. It involves permanent scarring and damage to the liver. This damage affects the liver’s ability to function.
Symptoms can include those seen in alcoholic hepatitis as well as:12
  • Increased blood pressure in the liver’s blood vessels. This leads to enlarged veins that can bleed.
  • Spleen enlargement
  • And kidney dysfunction

Alcoholic cirrhosis is not reversible. But stopping drinking can increase longevity and improve quality of life.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

Chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of developing HCC. This is a type of liver cancer. It often occurs in those who have already developed cirrhosis. Symptoms can include unexplained weight loss, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and noticeable abdominal masses.13
Given the silent nature of early liver disease, routine screening in individuals with chronic alcohol use is critical. Physicians often use blood tests, imaging, and biopsies to diagnose these conditions.
alcohol affects which part of the body

Find Support for Chronic Alcohol Use at Choice House

If you’ve wondered “alcohol affects which part of the body,” Choice House can help provide answers and support. We are a men’s treatment facility located in Boulder, Colorado. Our serene treatment setting and expert staff aim to guide men toward lasting recovery.
At Choice House, we understand that alcohol affects many different parts of the body. Alcohol use can impact multiple organ systems. This can range from the brain and nervous system to the liver and heart.

What We Offer

Our dedicated team of professionals is committed to helping you navigate the difficult journey of alcohol recovery.

We provide treatment programs that not only address the physical damage caused by alcohol use but also the underlying psychological and emotional issues that go with addiction.
Our approach is holistic and individualized. We focus on healing the whole person – mind, body, and spirit. We offer a variety of services, including:

Find Support at Choice House

At Choice House, we offer guidance and support at every stage of your recovery journey. We recognize the harmful effects of alcohol on the body and the importance of providing compassionate and effective treatment to promote lasting recovery and improved health.
Ready to start your journey to recovery? Find out how Choice House can help by contacting us today at 303-578-4773 or
Participants leave their usual environments and enter nature. In these settings, they must learn to work as part of a team and develop survival skills.1

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Don’t let addiction or co-occurring mental health conditions keep you from leading the happy, healthy, and empowered life you deserve. Contact Choice House today and embrace recovery.

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